Anfang der 1990er-Jahre wuchs das Bewusstsein für den Sinn fairer Verhaltensregeln. Damals wurden vor allem in der Bekleidungs- und Sportartikelindustrie freiwillige Verhaltenskodizes eingeführt. Die Marken verpflichteten sich, gewisse Standards einzuhalten.…

Anfang der 1990er-Jahre wuchs das Bewusstsein für den Sinn fairer Verhaltensregeln. Damals wurden vor allem in der Bekleidungs- und Sportartikelindustrie freiwillige Verhaltenskodizes eingeführt. Die Marken verpflichteten sich, gewisse Standards einzuhalten.

Im Energieleben-Interview hat Mag.a Michaela Knieli von „die umweltberatung“ im Bezug auf Ökotextilien und schonend verarbeitete Mode besonders auf das Label „Global Organic Textile Standard“ hingewiesen.

Verhaltenskodizes

Die Verhaltenskodizes der Industrie sind schriftlich niedergelegte Richtlinien, die als Grundlage für das Verhalten transnationaler Konzerne dienen sollen. Sie gelten für das Verhalten gegenüber der Belegschaft, gegenüber staatlichen Stellen und in Sachen Umwelt.
Laut OECD: „von Unternehmen, Verbänden oder anderen juristischen Personen freiwillig eingegangene Verpflichtungen, in denen Standards und Grundsätze für die Durchführung von geschäftlichen Aktivitäten im Markt festgeschrieben sind.“

Kontrollen

37 derartige Abkommen gab es im Jahr 2001. Inzwischen ist diese Zahl noch gewachsen. Nur: Ob ein Verhaltenskodex eingehalten wird, muss natürlich geprüft werden.
Dafür kommen unabhängige Überprüfungsorganisationen infrage, wie die Fair Wear Foundation, die Ethical Trading Initiative und die Fair Labour Association.

Fair Wear Foundation (FWF)

1999 wurde in den Niederlanden die Fair-Wear-Foundation von Wirtschaftsverbänden, Gewerkschaften und NGOs gegründet.
Sie fordert:

  • – Keine Zwangsarbeit
  • – Keine Diskriminierung
  • – Keine Kinderarbeit
  • – Das Recht auf Kollektivverhandlungen
  • – Living Wages (Einkommen, das zum Leben reicht)
  • – Keine unzumutbaren langen Arbeitszeiten
  • – Einen technischen Standards entsprechenden und gesunden Arbeitsplatz
  • – Rechtsverbindliche Beschäftigungsbeziehungen

FWF kontrolliert:

2-Pack: www.2-pack.com
Bo Rüsselkäfer: www.boweevil.nl
Grosso Moda: www.grossomoda.nl
Expresso Fashion: www.expresso.nl
Gsus: www.g-sus.com
Hess Natur: www.hess-natur.at
McGregor Fashion Group: www.mcgregor-fashion.com
Mexx: www.mexx.com 
O’Neill: www.oneilleurope.com
Switcher: www.switcher.com
Young Fashion: www.youngfashion.nl
Falcon Sportswear: www.falconsportswear.nl


Ethical Trading Initiative (ETI)

Die Initiative für ethischen Handel (Ethical Trading Initiative) wurde 1998 gegründet.
Der Basiskodex enthält folgende Bestimmungen:

  • – Recht auf kollektive Verhandlungen
  • – Verbot der Zwangsarbeit
  • – Verbot der Kinderarbeit
  • – Verbot der Diskriminierung
  • – Living Wages
  • – Arbeits- und Gesundheitsschutz
  • – Geregelte Arbeitszeiten
  • – Geregelte Beschäftigungsbeziehung
  • – Verbot menschenunwürdiger Behandlung

Einige der von FTI betreuten Labels sind:

Boden: www.boden.co.uk
Debenhams: www.debenhams.de
Gap Inc.: www.gap.com
Jaeger: www.jaeger.co.uk
Madison: www.madisonhosiery.co.uk
Marks&Spencer: www.marksandspencer.com
Monsoon Accessorize: www.monsoon.co.uk
Mothercare: www.mothercare.com 
New Look: www.newlook.co.uk
Next: www.next.co.uk
Pentland (Lacoste Footwear, Ellesse, KangaROOS, Speedo, Kickers etc.):  www.pentland.com
Rohan: www.rohan.co.uk
William Lamb Footwear: www.wlamb.co.uk
Zara/ Inditex: www.inditex.com

Ende 2006 wurde Levi Strauss & Co aus der Betreuung durch ETI ausgeschlossen, weil der Konzern keine „Living Wages“ zahlen wollte.

Fair Labor Association (FLA)

Die Fair Labor Association wurde ebenfalls 1998 gegründet. Sie vereint Unternehmen, Universitäten, NGOs, den Anwaltsauschuss für Menschenrechte, Verbrauchervereine und dem nationalen Rat der Kirchen.

  • – Verbot der Zwangsarbeit
  • – Verbot der Kinderarbeit (wenn nach nationalen Gesetzen erlaubt, ist die Altersgrenze 14, ansonsten 15 Jahre)
  • – Verbot von Schikane und Missbrauch
  • – Verbot von Diskriminierung
  • – Sicherer und gesunder Arbeitsplatz
  • – Recht auf Kollektivverhandlungen
  • – Mindestens die Zahlung der jeweils gesetzlichen Mindestlöhne
  • – Geregelte Arbeitszeit
  • – Vergütung von Überstunden

Mitglieder sind:

Adidas Group (Adidas, Reebok, Salomon): www.adidas-group.com
Asics: www.asics.de
Top of the World: www.towcaps.com   
Gear for Sports: www.gearforsports.com  
H&M: www.hm.com
Eddie Bauer: www.eddiebauer.com
Philip Van Huesen (ua Calvin Klein): www.pvh.com
Puma: www.puma.com
Liz Claiborne: www.lizclaiborneinc.com 
Nike (inkl. Converse als 100 prozentige Tochtergesellschaft):  www.nike.com
New Era Cap: www.neweracap.com
Nordstrom: www.nordstrom.com
Outdoor Cap: www.outdoorcap.com  
Umbro: www.umbro.com
Zephyr Graf-X: www.zhats.com

Informationen: Clean Clothes

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